Carbon-based_Membranes_for_ Separation_Processes

الموضوع في 'العلوم العامة والبرامج العلمية' بواسطة chemistry, بتاريخ ‏نوفمبر 8, 2011.

  1. chemistry

    chemistry مستشار كلية العلوم النهرالخالد إداري

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    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    Carbon-based_Membranes_for_Separation_Processes
    by
    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Dipak Rana, Takeshi Matsuura, Henry C. Foley


    BooK description
    This book provides a significant overview of carbon-related membranes. It will cover the development of carbon related membranes and membrane modules from its onset to the latest research on carbon mixed matrix membranes. After reviewing progress in the field, the authors indicate future research directions and prospective development. The authors also attempt to provide a guideline for the readers who would like to establish their own laboratories for carbon membrane research. For this purpose, detailed information on preparation, characterization and testing of various types of carbon membrane is provided. Design and construction of carbon membrane modules are also described in detail.


    Contents
    Chapter-1
    Introduction
    1.1 The Development of Porous Inorganic Membranes
    References
    Chapter-2
    Transport Mechanism of Carbon Membranes
    2.1 Transport of Gas Through CMSMs
    2.2 Solution-Diffusion Model for Single Gas Transport
    2.3 Solution-Diffusion Model for the Transport of Binary Gas Mixtures
    References
    Chapter-3
    Configurations of Carbon Membranes
    3.1 Flat (Supported and Unsupported) Carbon Membranes
    3.2 Carbon Membranes Supported on Tube
    3.3 Carbon Capillary Membranes
    3.4 Carbon Hollow Fiber Membranes
    References
    Chapter-4
    Preparation of Carbon Membranes
    4.1 Precursor Selection
    4.1.1 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
    4.1.2 Polyimide and Derivatives
    4.1.3 Phenolic Resin
    4.1.4 Polyfurfuryl Alcohol
    4.1.5 Recent Works on the CMSM Precursors
    4.2 Polymeric Membrane Preparation
    4.3 Pretreatment of Precursor
    4.3.1 Oxidation Pretreatment
    4.3.2 Chemical Treatment
    4.3.3 Stretching
    4.3.4 Other Pretreatment
    4.4 Pyrolysis Process
    4.5 Post Treatment
    4.5.1 Post Oxidation
    4.5.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
    4.5.3 Post Pyrolysis
    4.5.4 Fouling Reduction
    4.5.5 Coating
    References
    Chapter-5
    Examples of CMSM Preparation, Characterization and Testing
    5.1 Hollow Fiber CMSM Membrane from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
    5.1.1 Polymer Solution Preparation
    5.1.2 Hollow Fiber Spinning Process
    5.1.3 Solvent Exchange Drying Process
    5.1.4 Pyrolysis System
    5.1.5 Membrane Characterization
    5.1.5.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    5.1.5.2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    5.1.5.3 Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)
    5.1.5.4 Elemental Analysis
    5.1.6 Gas Permeation Test
    5.2 Flat Sheet CMSM
    5.2.1 Precursor Membrane Formation
    5.2.2 Pyrolysis of Flat Sheet CMSMs
    5.2.3 Gas Permeation Experiment Preparation
    5.2.4 Gas Permeation Experiment
    References
    Chapter-6
    Membrane Characterization
    6.1 Permeability Measurement
    6.1.1 Liquid Permeability
    6.2 Physical Characterization
    6.2.1 Themogravimetric Analysis (TGA)
    6.2.2 Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
    6.2.3 Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR)
    6.2.4 Adsorption and Sorption Experiments
    6.2.5 Other Methods
    References
    Chapter-7
    Membrane Module Constructions
    7.1 Honey Comb Membrane Module by Blue Membranes GmbH
    7.2 Capillary Type CMSM Developed By Haraya et al.
    References
    Chapter-8
    Other Carbon-Based Membranes
    8.1 Carbon Nanotubes Membrane
    8.2 Molecular Dynamics Simulation
    8.2.1 Micropore Transport
    8.2.2 Knudsen Transport
    8.2.3 Viscous Flow Transport
    8.2.4 Discussion on the Gas Transport in the Carbon Nanotubes
    8.2.5 Discussion on the Water Transport in the Carbon Nanotubes
    8.3 Carbon Nanofiber Membranes
    8.3.1 Membrane Preparation
    8.3.2 Membrane Characterization
    8.3.3 Adsorption Tests of Monchloroacetic Acid
    8.3.4 Filtration Conditions and Rejection Measurements
    8.3.5 Results and Discussion
    8.3.6 Conclusions
    8.4 Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs)
    8.4.1 Membranes Filled with Activated Carbons or CMSs
    8.4.2 Membranes Filled with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
    8.5 Other Inorganic Materials Blended in Precursors
    References
    Chapter-9
    Applications of Carbon-Based Membranes for Separation Purposes
    9.1 Application in Gas Separation and RO/NF/UF/MF
    9.2 Vapor Separation
    9.3 Pervaporation
    9.4 Fuel Cell Application
    9.5 Water Treatment
    9.6 Membrane Reactor
    9.7 Miscellaneous Applications
    References
    Chapter-10
    Economic Evaluation
    10.1 Recovery of Hydrogen from the Natural Gas Network
    10.1.1 Introduction
    10.1.1.1 Local Permeance and the Temperature Effect on the Permeability
    10.1.1.2 NaturalHy Design Basis
    10.1.1.3 Performance Data
    10.1.1.4 Comparison of Membrane Performance with Commercial Polyimide Membrane
    10.1.1.5 Carbon Membrane Module Cost
    10.1.2 Methodology
    10.1.2.1 Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization
    10.1.3 Recovery from a Mixed Hydrogen-NG Network
    10.1.3.1 Comparison with a Polyimide (PI) Membrane
    10.2 Applications in Landfill Gas Energy Recovery
    10.2.1 Introduction
    10.2.1.1 Membrane Development
    10.2.2 Application
    10.2.2.1 Internal Combustion Engine Power Generation
    10.2.2.2 Upgrade Landfill Gas to Pipeline Quality
    10.2.2.3 Landfill Gas Generation and Collection Efficiency
    10.2.2.4 Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane Performance
    10.2.3 Economic Analysis of Applications
    10.2.3.1 Internal Combustion Engine Power Generation
    10.2.3.2 Injection into Pipeline
    References
    Chapter-11
    Current Research and Future Direction
    11.1 Inorganic Membranes and Carbon Membrane
    11.2 Current Research and Future Direction of Carbon Membrane Development for Gas Separation
    11.2.1 Advantages of the carbon membranes
    11.2.2 Disadvantage of Carbon Membranes
    11.2.3 Application of Carbon Membranes
    11.2.3.1 Nitrogen Production from Air
    11.2.3.2 Purification of Methane
    11.2.3.3 Hydrogen Recovery
    11.2.3.4 Light Alkenes/Alkanes
    11.2.3.5 Olefins and Paraffins
    11.2.3.6 Carbon Membrane Reactor
    11.2.3.7 Optimization
    11.2.4 Challenge in Carbon Membrane Development
    11.2.5 Few Manufacturers
    11.2.6 Improving Performance
    11.2.7 Future Directions of Research and Development
    11.2.7.1 Choice of Precursor and Optimization of Precursor Preparation Process
    11.2.7.2 Optimization of Pyrolysis Process
    11.2.7.3 Composite Precursor for Carbon Membranes
    11.2.7.4 Polymer Blend Carbonization
    11.2.7.5 Carbon Membrane Module Design
    11.2.7.6 Fiber Stretching During Spinning or Pre-oxidation Process
    11.2.7.7 Pre- and Post-treatment
    11.2.7.8 Carbon Membrane Aging and its Regeneration
    11.2.8 Chemical Vapor Deposition
    11.2.9 Conclusions
    References
    Index

    LinK

     
  2. khanssa

    khanssa Active Member

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