كيمياء تحليلية Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3e, Analytical Chemistry

الموضوع في 'قسم الكيمياء' بواسطة chemistry, بتاريخ ‏مايو 3, 2011.

  1. chemistry

    chemistry مستشار كلية العلوم النهرالخالد إداري

    إنضم إلينا في:
    ‏فبراير 5, 2007
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    نقاط الجوائز:
    128
    الجنس:
    ذكر


    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3e, Analytical Chemistry
    by
    Robert Allen Meyers



    Description
    Following in the footsteps of the earlier editions, hundreds of the most respected scientists and engineers participated in the creation of this new edition, including many Nobel Laureates. The articles are in-depth, yet accessible, and address all of the key areas of physical science--including aeronautics, astronomy, chemistry, communications, computers, earth sciences, electronics, engineering, materials science, mathematics, nuclear technology, physics, power systems, propulsion, and space technology. (Midwest)


    Contents
    Analytical Chemistry
    Cover Page
    Table of Contents
    Analytical Chemistry
    Analytical Chemistry
    Glossary
    Classical Methods
    Semimicro Qualitative Analysis
    Gravimetric Analysis
    Titrimetric (Volumetric) Analysis
    Neutralization Titrations
    Precipitation Titrations
    Complexometric Titrations
    Oxidation–Reduction Titrations
    Instrumental Methods
    Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation
    Atomic Absorption
    Molecular Absorption
    Optical polarization
    Ultraviolet–visible
    Infrared
    Electron spin resonance
    Nuclear Absorption
    Nuclear magnetic resonance
    Nuclear . -ray resonance spectroscopy
    Emission of Electromagnetic Radiation
    Atomic Emission
    Emission spectroscopy
    Atomic fluorescence spectroscopy
    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
    Molecular Emission
    Fluorescence spectroscopy
    Raman spectroscopy
    Nuclear Emission
    Activation analysis
    . -Ray spectroscopy
    Separation Science
    Principles of Chromatography
    Gas Chromatography
    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
    Ion Chromatography
    Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
    Chromatographic Methods in Biochemical Science
    Analytical Electrochemistry
    Conductimetry
    Potentiometry
    Indicator and reference electrodes
    Glass electrodes
    Ion-selective electrodes
    Voltammetry and Polarography
    Amperometric Titrations
    Coulometry and Electrogravimetry
    Mass Spectrometry
    Ion Sources
    The Spectrometer
    Other Components
    Analytical Use
    Thermal Methods
    Thermogravimetry
    Differential Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry
    Thermometric Titrations
    Electron Spectroscopy
    Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy or Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
    Auger Electron Spectroscopy
    Surface Analysis
    Chemical Sensors
    Electrochemical Devices
    Optical Devices
    Piezoelectric Devices
    Computers in Analytical Chemistry
    Instrument Control and Data Handling
    Data Acquisition and Processing
    Microprocessor Control
    Fourier Transform Analysis
    Chemometrics
    Common Chemometric Methods
    Multiple regression analysis
    Factor analysis
    Pattern recognition
    Optimization by the Simplex Method
    Selectivity vs Specificity
    Future Perspectives
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Atomic Spectrometry
    Atomic Spectrometry
    Glossary
    Atomic Spectrometric Techniques
    Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES)
    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)
    Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
    Detection of Elemental Ions
    Optical Detection
    Wavelength Selection
    Photon Detection
    Atomic Emission Spectrometry
    Theoretical Background
    Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
    Instrumentation
    Instrumentation for Multi-Element Analysis
    Sensitivity
    Chemical Interference Effects
    Spectral Interferences
    Electrical Discharges for Optical Emission Spectrometry
    dc and ac Arcs and Sparks
    dc Plasma
    Glow Discharge Plasma
    Other Plasmas
    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    Theoretical Background
    Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    Instrumentation
    Interference Effects
    Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    Instrumentation
    Tube Design and Heating Characteristics
    Pyrolytic Coating of the Graphite Tube
    Inert Gas Requirements
    The Detection System
    Physico-Chemical Interferences
    Background Correction
    Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry
    Theoretical Background
    Light Source
    Detection System
    Spectral Interferences
    Detection of Elemental Ions
    Comparisons of the Atomic Spectrometric Techniques
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Auger Electron Spectroscopy
    Auger Electron Spectroscopy
    Glossary
    Introduction
    The Auger Process and Auger Electron Spectroscopy
    Applications in Materials Science
    Conclusions
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Capillary Zone Electrophoresis
    Capillary Zone Electrophoresis
    Glossary
    Principles of Capillary Electrophoresis
    Band Broadening in Capillary Electrophoresis
    Initial Zone Width (hinj)
    Diffusion and Electrodispersion (hdiff+cond)
    Joule Heating (hjoule)
    Adsorption (hads)
    Capillary Electrophoresis Instrumentation
    Power Supply
    Injection
    Capillary Temperature Control
    Detectors
    Absorbance
    Fluorescence
    Mass Spectrometry
    Preparative Capillary Electrophoresis
    Capillary Electrophoresis Separation Modes
    Capillary Zone Electrophoresis
    Separation Conditions for Capillary Zone Electrophoresis
    Applications of Capillary Zone Electrophoresis
    Capillary Ion Analysis
    Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis
    Chiral Analysis
    Capillary Isoelectric Focusing
    Separation Conditions for Capillary Isoelectric Focusing
    Applications of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing
    Capillary Sieving Techniques
    Capillary Gel Electrophoresis
    Replaceable Polymer Solutions
    Isotachophoresis
    Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography
    Capillary Electrokinetic Chromatography
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Electrochemistry
    Electrochemistry
    Glossary
    Fundamentals
    Electron-Transfer Dynamics (Kinetics and Thermodynamics)
    Electrode Potentials and Potentiometry
    Principles and Fundamental Relations
    Electrode Systems
    Applications of Potentiometry
    Controlled-Potential Electrolysis and Voltammetry
    Principles and Fundamental Relations
    Diffusion to a Planar Electrode
    Voltammetry
    Polarography
    Linear Sweep and Cyclic Voltammetry
    Controlled-Potential Bulk Electrolysis
    Applications of Controlled-Potential Methods
    Electron-Transfer Processes
    Oxidative Electrochemistry: Metals, Metal Complexes, Lewis Bases
    Metals
    Metal Complexes
    Reductive Electrochemistry
    Free Electron (e-); Ultimate Base and One-Electron Reductant in Any Matrix
    Electro-Induced Hydrogenation
    Electrochemical Characterization of Molecules
    Hydronium Ions, Brønsted Acids, and Molecular Hydrogen
    Hydronium-Ion (H+ O) Reduction
    Brønsted-Acid (HA) Reduction and Evaluation of pKa(sol)
    Oxidation of Dissolved Dihydrogen (H2)
    Dioxygen Species (·O2·, HOO·/O-2 ·, HOOH)
    Molecular Oxygen
    Aprotic Media
    Hydrogen Peroxide (HOOH, H2O2)
    Nonmetals
    Elemental Sulfur (S8)
    Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
    Nitric Oxide (·NO)
    Hydrazines and Amines
    Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
    Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    Organic Molecules
    Alkyl- and Aryl-Halides
    Quinones, Semiquinones, and Catechols
    Carbonyl Groups, Olefins, and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    Brønsted Acids
    Oxidation of Nucleophilic Substrates and Lewis Bases
    Organometallic Molecules
    Ferrocene
    Iron-Pentacarbonyl
    Industrial Electrosynthesis
    Electroplating and Electrorefining
    Copper Refining
    Aluminum Production
    Chloro-Alkali Production
    Organic Molecules and Polymers (e.g., Adiponitrile)
    Molecular Hydrogen and Hydrogen Peroxide
    Batteries and Fuel Cells
    Lead-Acid Battery
    Edison Battery
    “Dry-Cell” Batteries
    LeClanch´e Cell
    Alkaline Cell
    High-Performance Batteries (Nickel/Cadmium, Silver/Zinc, Lithium)
    Nickel/Cadmium
    Silver/Zinc
    Lithium
    Fuel Cells
    Corrosion; Cathodic Protection
    Structural Steel/Aluminum Anodes
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Electron Spin Resonance
    Electron Spin Resonance
    Glossary
    Basic Principles
    Experimental Aspects
    Isotropic Hyperfine Analysis
    Relation of Hyperfine Constants to Spin Densities
    Second-Order Huperfine Effects
    Anisotropic Hyperfine Interaction
    g Anisotropy
    Spin Relaxation
    Double-Resonance and Tine-Domain ESR
    Applications
    New Developments
    See also the Following Aritcles
    References
    Electrophoresis
    Electrophoresis
    Glossary
    Underlying Theory
    Background
    Moving-Boundary Electrophoresis
    Origin of Molecular and Particulate Charge
    Stationary Boundaries
    Electrophoretic Mobility, Sedimentation Coefficient, and Diffusion Coefficient for Macroions
    Free-Solution Electrophoresis
    Conventional Procedures
    Electrophoretic Light Scattering
    Electrophoresis in a Stationary Matrix
    Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
    Molecular Properties Important for Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
    Molecular Properties Important for Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
    Estimation of Relative Masses Using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
    Isoelectric Focusing and Isotachophoresis
    Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
    Other Techniques
    Electrophoresis in Oscillating Electric Fields
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Elemental Analysis, Organic Compounds
    Elemental Analysis, Organic Compounds
    Glossary
    Introduction
    Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
    Determination of Carbon and Hydrogen
    Dumas Method for Nitrogen Determination
    Simultaneous Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
    Kjeldahl Method for Nitrogen Determination
    Determination of Oxygen
    Determination of Sulfur
    Determination of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine
    Decomposition Methods
    Modes of Finish
    Determination of Fluorine
    Determination of Arsenic and Phosphorus
    Determination of Metallic Elements
    Determination by Ashing
    Determination of Mercury
    Other Methods for Determining Atomic Ratios
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Gas Chromatography
    Gas Chromatography
    Glossary
    Gas Chromatographic Molecular Separation
    Physical Principles
    Separation Columns
    Detectors and Ancillary Techniques
    Detectors
    The Thermal-Conductivity Detector
    The Flame-Ionization Detector
    The Electron-Capture Detector
    Other Detection Techniques
    Ancillary Techniques
    Pyrolysis/GC
    GC/Mass Spectrometry
    GC/Infrared Spectroscopy
    Instrumentation
    Applications
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Infrared Spectroscopy
    Infrared Spectroscopy
    Glossary
    Basic Theory
    Electromagnetic Spectrum
    Infrared Spectra Coordinates
    Diatomic Vibrations
    Polyatomic Vibrations
    Infrared Absorption
    Dipole Moment Change
    Symmetry and Infrared Activity
    Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator
    Effect of Anharmonicity
    Fermi Resonance
    Molecular Rotation
    Gas-Phase Band Contours
    Instrumentation
    Infrared Spectrometers
    Grating Spectrophotometers
    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers
    Sample Handling Techniques
    Infrared-Transmitting Materials
    Salt Polishing
    Liquid Samples
    Gas Samples
    Solution Spectra
    Films
    Mulls
    Potassium Bromide Disks
    Internal Reflectance
    Diffuse Reflectance
    Infrared Microspectroscopy
    The Near Infrared Region
    Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses
    Derivative Spectra
    Quantitative Analysis
    Beer’s Law
    Beer’s Law Deviations
    Measurement of Absorbance
    Integrated Band Intensities
    Base Line Method
    Ratio Methods
    Gas State Analysis
    Multicomponent Analysis
    Group Frequencies
    Concept of Group Frequencies
    Vibrational Interaction
    Survey of Group Frequencies
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Liquid Chromatography
    Liquid Chromatography
    Glossary
    Analytical HPLC
    Solvent Mixing
    Pump
    Injector
    Column Dimensions and Hardware
    Column Packing Supports
    Column Packing Technique
    HPLC Detectors
    Small- and Large-Scale HPLC
    Microbore HPLC
    Capillary HPLC
    Preparative HPLC
    Separation Techniques
    Adsorption LC
    Partition LC
    Chiral Separations
    Ion-Exchange LC
    Size-Exclusion LC
    Development of Separation Strategy
    Choosing a Separation Technique
    Programming an LC Variable
    Sample Derivatization Chemistry
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
    Glossary
    Magnetic Resonance as a Physical Phenomenon
    Current Status in Medicine
    Historical Development
    Nuclear Magnetism
    Comparison to Other Forms of Magnetism
    Bloch Equations
    Relaxation Times
    Chemical Shift
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Scanners as Medical Instruments
    System Considerations
    Magnets
    Gradient Coils
    Radio-Frequency Coils
    Safety Considerations
    Imaging Techniques
    Selective Excitation
    Spin-Warp Technique
    Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Proton Imaging
    Current Trends
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Mass Spectrometry
    Mass Spectrometry
    Glossary
    Instrumentation
    Sample Introduction Systems
    Direct Insertion Probe
    Chromatographic Columns
    Gas chromatography
    Liquid chromatography
    Capillary electrophoresis
    Ionization Sources
    Electron Ionization
    Chemical Ionization
    Electrospray Ionization
    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization
    Mass Analyzers
    Magnetic and Electric Sectors
    TOF Mass Analyzers
    Quadrupole Mass Filters
    Ion Traps
    Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometers
    Detectors
    Electron Multipliers
    Array Detectors
    Launch Points for the Next Fifty Years
    Exact Mass Measurement
    Multidimensional MS/MS
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Mass Spectrometry in Forensic Science
    Mass Spectrometry in Forensic Science
    Glossary
    Data Generation
    Sample Inlet
    Ion Generation
    Mass Analyzer
    Magnetic Sector Instrument
    Quadrupole Instrument
    Ion Trap Detector
    Tandem Mass Spectrometer
    Mass Focusing
    Mass Detection
    Data Evaluation
    Toxicology
    Arson Analysis
    Environmental Issue
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Microwave Molecular Spectroscopy
    Microwave Molecular Spectroscopy
    Glossary
    Background
    Experimental Techniques
    Conventional Microwave Spectrometer
    Millimeter/Submillimeter-Wave Spectrometer
    Line Intensities and Shapes
    Evaluation of the Moments of Inertia
    Rigid-Rotor Energy Levels and Spectra
    Diatomic and Linear Molecules
    Symmetric-Top Molecules
    Asymmetric-Top Molecules
    Spectral Assignment Aids
    Double Resonance
    Ab Initio Quantum Calculations
    Structural Information
    Selected Structural Information
    Free Radicals and Ions
    H-Bonded Complexes
    Rotational Isomerism and Ring Conformations
    Methyl Group: Tilts and Asymmetry
    Quasi-Linear Molecules
    Interstellar Space Applications
    Centrifugal Distortion Effects
    Diatomic and Linear Rotors
    Symmetric-Top Molecules
    Asymmetric-Top Molecules
    Information from Distortion Constants
    Rotation-Vibration Interactions
    Diatomic Molecules
    I-Type Doubling in Linear Molecules
    Internal Rotation
    Single Top with a Threefold Barrier
    Rotational Isomerism
    Large-Amplitude Motions
    Evaluation of Molecular Structures
    Equilibrium Structure
    Average Structure
    Effective Structure
    Substitution Structure
    Mass-Dependence Structure
    Scaled Structure
    Stark Effect and Zeeman Effect
    Linear and Symmetric-Top Molecules
    Asymmetric-Top Molecules
    Dipole Moment Information
    Zeeman Effect
    Nuclear Quadrupole Hyperfine Structure
    Linear and Symmetric-Top Molecules
    Asymmetric-Top Molecules
    Quadrupole Coupling Constants and the Chemical Bond
    Magnetic Interactions
    Advanced Experimental Methods
    Spectroscopy of Isotope-Substituted Nonpolar Molecules
    Unstable and Semistable Species
    Low-Temperature Spectroscopy
    Collisional Broadening
    Fourier-Transform Microwave Spectroscopy
    Pulsed-Nozzle MWFT Double-Resonance Spectroscopy
    Terahertz Region
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
    Glossary
    Introduction
    The Nucleus as a Probe of Molecular Structure; Internal Interactions and the Effects of Motion
    Shielding; Chemical Shifts
    Dipolar Interaction
    Electric Field Gradient; Quadrupolar Nuclei
    Scalar Coupling
    NMR Spectra of Liquids
    NMR in Solids
    Pulse and Fourier Transform NMR
    Two-Dimensional NMR
    Multiple Quantum NMR
    Coupled Spins 12
    Quadrupolar Nuclei
    Medical Imaging
    Acknowledgment
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Organic Chemistry, Compound Detection
    Organic Chemistry, Compound Detection
    Glossary
    Introduction
    Chromatographic Methods
    Flash Chromatography
    Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography
    High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography
    Reversed-Phase HPLC (RP/HPLC)
    Detection Systems
    Fluorescence Detection
    Radioactivity Detectors
    Preparative Liquid Chromatography
    Chiral Separations Using Capillary GC
    Enantiomeric Analysis of Amino Acids by HPLC
    Chiral Separations by HPLC
    Gas Chromatography
    Derivatization Gas Chromatography
    Cyclic Derivatives
    Separation of Enantiomers
    Cyclodextrins
    Applications of cyclodextrins
    Sugars and Related Compounds
    Insecticides and Pesticides
    Separation and Identification of Geometrical and Optical Isomers
    Identification Methods Based on Comparison of Retention Data
    Identification Methods Using On-Line Selective Detectors
    Monitoring of Column Effluents by MS
    Reaction Gas Chromatography
    Esterification in Situ
    In Situ Hydrolysis
    Dehydration and Decarboxylation
    Carbon Skeleton Determination of Organic Compounds
    Locating Double Bond Position
    Selective Removal of Compounds from Mixtures
    Combination of TLC and Vapor-Phase Chromatography
    Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography (Py/GC)
    Pyrolysis of Synthetic Polymers
    Pyrolysis of Biological Molecules
    Pyrolysis of Drugs and Natural Products
    Pyrolysis of Organic Geopolymers
    Extraterrestrial Matter
    Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
    Interfacing Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with Fourier Transform IR (SFC–FTIR)
    Superficial Fluid Chromatography (SCF) and SCF/MS for Analysis of Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures
    Thin-Layer Chromatography
    High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography
    Impregnated Layers
    Detection and Visualization
    Radiochemical Techniques
    Coupled TLC Techniques
    TLC–GC
    GC–TLC
    In Situ Chemical Reactions on TL Plates
    Lab on-a-Chip
    Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF)
    Ion Chromatography (IC)
    Capillary Electrochromatography (CEC)
    Spectroscopic Methods
    Infrared Spectroscopy
    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
    Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Spectrometry (DRIFTS)
    Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy (2D IR)
    Chromatographic Optimization of Combined GC–FTIR–MS
    Matrix Isolation Fourier Transform Spectrometry (MI-FTIR)
    Analytical Applications Using GC–MI-FTIR
    Protein sample preparation
    Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-RS)
    Vacuumless Spectrochemistry in the Vacuum Ultraviolet
    Mass Spectrometry (MS)
    GC–MS–MS
    MALDI–MS
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
    13C NMR Spectroscopy
    13C-CP/MAS NMR
    Applications of FTNMR
    Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy 2D-NMR)
    Applications of 2D-NMR Spectroscopy
    1H NMR “Polarimetry”
    Supersonic Jet Spectroscopy
    Gas Chromatography–Supersonic Jet Spectroscopy (GC–SJ Spectroscopy)
    X-Ray Crystallography
    Chemical Analysis
    Future Prospects
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
    Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
    Glossary
    Introduction
    Photoacoustic Effect and Signal Generation
    Advantages
    Instrumentation
    Modulated Photoacoustic Spectrometer
    Pulsed Photoacoustic Spectrometer
    Photoacoustic Cells
    Basic Photoacoustic Cell
    Photoacoustic Open Cell
    Cell with Optical Microphone
    Cuvette Cell
    Layered Prism Cell
    Applications
    Chemical Analysis
    Biophysics of Proteins and Organic Molecules
    Dermatology
    Oncology and Photosensitizers
    Ophthalmology
    Plant Biology
    Biomass Determination
    Photosynthesis
    Photoacoustic signal generation leaves.
    Photosynthetic energy storage.
    Light state transitions.
    Photosynthetic oxygen evolution.
    Spectral Properties
    Environmental Sciences
    See also the following Articles
    References
    Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    Glossary
    Fundamentals of Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    Basic Principles
    Photoelectron Spectra
    Competing Photoemission Processes
    Comparison to the Optical Spectrum of the Ion
    Photoelectron Spectra of Solids
    Angular Distribution of Photoelectrons
    Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectra
    Spin-Resolved Photoelectron Spectra
    Zero Kinetic Energy Photoelectron Spectra
    Photoemission From Atoms,Photoemiss Photoemission From Atoms, Molecules, and Solids
    The Independent-Particle Model
    The Frozen Orbital Approximation
    Secondary Structures in PE Spectra
    Koopmans’ Theorem
    Final State Effects
    Auger Parameter and Chemical State Plot
    Vibrational Fine Structure
    Multiplet Splitting
    Instrumentation
    Vacuum Requirements
    Radiation Source
    Collision Chamber and Sample Inlet System
    Electron Energy Analyzer
    Detectors
    Magnetic Shielding
    Instrumentation for Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    Some Examples
    Free Molecules
    Energy Band Mapping
    Atomic Charges
    Investigation of Adsorbates
    Studies in Corrosion
    New Directions
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Raman Spectroscopy
    Raman Spectroscopy
    Glossary
    Classical Model of Raman Scattering
    Quantum Mechanical Model of Raman Scattering
    Appearance of A Raman Spectrum and Units
    Polarization Properties of Raman Scattering
    Basic Experimental Apparatus
    Radiation Sources
    Dispersion Elements
    Detectors
    Filters
    Basic Experimental Techniques
    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
    Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
    SPP-Raman
    Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy
    Confocal Raman Microscopy
    Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
    Nonlinear Raman Effects
    Hyper-Raman Spectroscopy
    Surface-Enhanced Hyper-Raman Spectroscopy
    Stimulated Raman Effect
    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
    Chemical and Biochemical Applications
    Chemical Applications
    CARS Cross-Sectional Imaging
    FT-Raman Analysis of Polymers
    SERS of Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Solid/Liquid Interface
    SEHRS Assisted Assignment of Vibrational Bands
    SPP-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Clusters
    Biochemical Applications
    The Solid State
    Symmetry of Vibrations from Single-Crystal Spectra
    Semiconductors
    Phase Transitions
    Recent Developments—Single Molecule Sers (SMSERS)
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Scanning Probe Microscopy
    Scanning Probe Microscopy
    Glossary
    Basic Operating Principles
    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
    Applications of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (Stm)
    Applications of Atomic Force Microscopy (Afm)
    Other SPM Techniques and Applications
    Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM)
    Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)
    Electric Force Microscopy (EFM) and Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy (SSPM)
    Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM)
    Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM)
    Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM)
    Future Trends
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Sonoluminescence and Sonochemistry
    Sonoluminescence and Sonochemistry
    Glossary
    Introduction to Cavitation
    Acoustic Cavitation
    Two-Site Model of Sonochemical Reactivity
    Microjet Formation during Cavitation at Liquid–Solid Interfaces
    Sonoluminescence
    Types of Sonoluminescence
    Multiple-Bubble Sonoluminescence
    Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence
    Spectroscopic Probes of Cavitation Conditions
    Sonochemistry
    Experimental Design
    Homogeneous Sonochemistry: Bond Breaking and Radical Formation
    Applications of Sonochemistry to Materials Synthesis and Catalysis
    Heterogeneous Sonochemistry: Reactions of Solids with Liquids
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Spectroscopy in Forensic Science
    Spectroscopy in Forensic Science
    Glossary
    History
    Forensic Spectroscopy Techniques
    Visible Spectroscopy
    Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (UVS)
    Fluorescence Spectroscopy (FS)
    Infrared Spectroscopy (IRS)
    Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy
    Raman Spectroscopy
    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Spectroscopy
    Atomic Spectroscopy (AS)
    Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)
    Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)
    Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
    Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS)
    Spectrophotometry (SP)
    Microscopical Spectrophotometry (MSP)
    Conclusion
    See also the Following Articles
    References
    Thermal Analysis
    Thermal Analysis
    Glossary
    Introduction
    Scope of Thermal Analysis
    Nomenclature
    Symbols
    Standardization
    Reporting Thermal Analysis Data
    Components of Thermal Analysis instrumentation
    Furnace Design
    Temperature Programmes
    Recording Systems
    Publications and Books on Thermal Analysis
    Differential Scanning Calorimetry and differential Thermal Analysis


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