كيمياء فيزيائية Photochemistry

الموضوع في 'قسم الكيمياء' بواسطة chemistry, بتاريخ ‏أكتوبر 27, 2009.

  1. chemistry

    chemistry مستشار كلية العلوم النهرالخالد إداري

    إنضم إلينا في:
    ‏فبراير 5, 2007
    المشاركات:
    12,898
    الإعجابات المتلقاة:
    5,641
    نقاط الجوائز:
    128
    الجنس:
    ذكر
    المصدر: Photochemistry
    في منتدى : قسم الكيمياء


    (hi)(hi)(hi)(hi)
    :gift::gift:
    Photochemistry
    (Specialist Periodical Reports)
    By
    Ian Dunkin


    A Review of the Literature published between Jule 2003 and June 2004
    The breadth of scientific and technological interest in the general topic of photochemistry is truly enormous and includes for example, such diverse areas as microelectronics, atmospheric chemistry, organic synthesis, non-conventional photoimaging, photosynthesis, solar energy conversion, polymer technologies, and spectroscopy. Photochemistry reviews photo-induces processes that have relevance to the above wide-ranging academic and commercial disciplines, and interests in chemistry, physics, biology and technology. In order to provide easy access to this vast and varied literature. Photochemistry comprises sections sub-divided by chromosphere and reaction type, and also comprehensive section on polymer photochemistry. Throughout, emphasis is places on useful applications of photochemistry.

    Publisher
    Royal Society of Chemistry
    Number Of Pages: 294
    Publication Date: 2007-03-07
    ISBN-10 / ASIN: 0854044507
    ISBN-13 / EAN: 9780854044504
    Introduction and Review of the Year 1


    Photolysis of Carbonyl Compounds 9
    By William M. Horspool
    1 Norrish Type I Reactions 10
    2 Norrish Type II Reactions 11
    2.1 1,5-Hydrogen Transfer 11
    2.2 Other Hydrogen Transfers 15
    3 Oxetane Formation 15
    4 Miscellaneous Processes 17
    4.1 Decarboxylation and Decarbonylation 17
    4.2 Reactions of Miscellaneous Haloketones
    and Acid Chlorides 18
    4.3 Other Processes 19
    References 20
    Enone Cycloadditions and Rearrangements:
    Photoreactions of Dienones and Quinones 23
    By William M. Horspool
    1 Cycloaddition Reactions 23
    1.1 Intermolecular Cycloadditions 23
    1.2 Intramolecular Cycloadditions 29
    2 Rearrangement Reactions 31
    2.1 a, b-Unsaturad Systems 31
    2.2 b, g-Unsaturated Systems 34
    3 Photoreactions of Thymines and Related Compounds 35
    3.1 Photoreactions of Pyridones 35
    3.2 Photoreactions of Thymines, etc 36
    4 Photochemistry of Dienones 39
    4.1 Cross-conjugated Dienones 39
    4.2 Linearly Conjugated Dienones 41
    5 1,2-, 1,3- and 1,4-Diketones 42
    5.1 Reactions of 1,2-Diketones and other
    1,2-Dicarbonyl Compounds 42
    5.2 Reactions of 1,3-Diketones 43
    5.3 Reactions of 1,4-Diketones 44
    5.4 Fulgides and Fulgimides 46
    6 Quinones 48
    6.1 p-Quinones 48
    References 49
    Photochemistry of Alkenes, Alkynes and Related Compounds 55
    By William M. Horspool
    1 Reactions of Alkenes 55
    1.1 cis,trans-Isomerization 55
    1.2 Miscellaneous Reactions 65
    2 Reactions involving Cyclopropane Rings 70
    2.1 The Di-p-methane Rearrangement and Related Processes 70
    2.2 Miscellaneous Reactions Involving three-membered
    Ring Compounds 72
    3 Reactions of Dienes and Trienes 74
    4 (2p + 2p)-Intramolecular Additions 77
    5 Dimerization and Intermolecular Additions 79
    6 Miscellaneous Reactions 82
    6.1 Reactions of Halo Compounds 82
    6.2 Miscellaneous Rearrangements and Bond
    Fission Processes 84
    References 84
    Photochemistry of Aromatic Compounds 91
    By Andrew Gilbert
    1 Introduction 91
    2 Isomerization Reactions 91
    3 Addition Reactions 94
    4 Substitution Reactions 98
    5 Cyclization Reactions 101
    6 Dimerization Processes 119
    7 Lateral Nuclear Shifts 121
    8 Miscellaneous Photochemistry of Aromatic Systems 124
    References 128
    Photooxidation and Photoreduction 133
    By Niall W. A. Geraghty
    1 Introduction 133
    2 Reduction of the Carbonyl Group 134
    3 Reduction of Nitrogen-containing Compounds 136
    4 Miscellaneous Reductions 142
    5 Singlet Oxygen 146
    5.1 Singlet Oxygen 146
    5.2 Oxidation of Aliphatic Compounds 149
    5.3 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds 153
    6 Other Oxidation Methods 155
    6.1 Oxidation of Aliphatic Compounds 155
    6.2 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds 163
    7 Oxidation of Nitrogen-containing Systems 175
    8 Miscellaneous Oxidations 190
    References 196
    Photoelimination 205
    By Ian R. Dunkin
    1 Introduction 205
    2 Elimination of Nitrogen from Azo Compounds and Analogues 205
    3 Elimination of Nitrogen from Diazo
    Compounds and Diazirines 207
    3.1 Generation of Alkyl and Aryl Carbenes 207
    3.2 Photolysis of a-Diazo Carbonyl and
    Related Compounds 210
    4 Elimination of Nitrogen from Azides and
    Related Compounds 212
    5 Photoelimination of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide 215
    5.1 Photoelimination of CO from Organometallic
    Compounds 217
    6 Photoelimination of NO and NO2 218
    7 Miscellaneous Photoeliminations and Photofragmentations 219
    7.1 Photoelimination from Hydrocarbons 219
    7.2 Photoeliminations from Organohalogen Compounds 220
    7.3 Photofragmentations of Organosilicon Compounds 223
    7.4 Photofragmentations of Organosulfur Compounds 224
    7.5 Photolysis of o-Nitrobenzyl Derivatives and
    Related Compounds 225
    7.6 Other Photofragmentations 227
    References 228
    Polymer Photochemistry 232
    By Norman S. Allen
    1 Introduction 232
    2 Photopolymerization 232
    2.1 Photoinitiated Addition Polymerization 233
    2.2 Photocrosslinking 236
    2.3 Photografting 243
    3 Luminescence and Optical Properties 243
    4 Photodegradation and Photooxidation
    Processes in Polymers 262
    4.1 Polyolefins 263
    4.2 Polystyrenes 263
    4.3 Poly(Acrylates) and -(Alkyl Acrylates) 263
    4.4 Poly(Vinyl Halides) 264
    4.5 Polyamides and Polyimides 264
    4.6 Poly(Aromatics) 264
    4.7 Silicone Polymers 264
    4.8 Polyurethanes and Rubbers 264
    4.9 Polyesters 264
    4.10 Photoablation of Polymers 265
    4.11 Natural Polymers 265
    4.12 Miscellaneous Polymers 266
    5 Photostabilization of Polymers 266
    6 Photochemistry of Dyed and Pigmented Polymers 267
    References 268


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