Chemistry and Technology of Agrochemical Formulations

الموضوع في 'العلوم العامة والبرامج العلمية' بواسطة EBN EL NEAL, بتاريخ ‏ديسمبر 7, 2008.

  1. EBN EL NEAL

    EBN EL NEAL Well-Known Member

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    Chemistry and Technology of Agrochemical Formulations

    by

    Allan Knowles





    [​IMG]



    About the Author

    Allan Knowles is a specialist in the formulation of agrochemical products and principal of FORM-AK Formulation Consultancy Services, UK


    General Contents

    Review of Major Agrochemical Classes and Uses
    - Future Needs
    - World Markets, 1996
    - Sales by Category, 1995
    - Sales by Crop, 1995
    - Sales by Region, 1995
    - Herbicides
    - Insecticides
    - Fungicides
    - Plant Growth Regulators
    - Biological Screening: Discovery and Development of a New Agrochemical
    Formulation of Agrochemicals
    - Conventional Formulations
    - New-Generation Formulations
    - Surfactants for Agrochemicals
    - Other Formulation Additives
    Water-Dispersible Granules
    - Manufacturing Methods
    - Physical Properties
    - Design: Modern Methods
    Recent Developments on Safer Formulations of Agrochemicals
    - Liquid Formulations
    - Controlled-Release Formulations
    - Water-Soluble Packaging
    - Dry Products (Water-Dispersible Granules)
    - Adjuvants
    - Other Formulation Types
    - Summary and Future Possibilities
    Agrochemical Formulations Using Natural Lignin Products
    - Wettable Powders (WP)
    - Water-Dispersible Granules (WG)
    - Suspension Concentrates (SC)
    - Oil-In-Water Emulsions (EW)
    - Controlled Release
    - Ultraviolet Protection
    - Compatibility Agents
    - Adjuvants
    - Complexing Agents
    - Environmental and Regulatory Information
    Novel Surfactants and Adjuvants for Agrochemicals
    - Polymeric Surfactants and Stability
    - Trends Towards Environmentally Safer Surfactants
    - Enhancing Biological Activity Using Adjuvants
    Improving Agrochemical Performance: Possible Mechanisms for Adjuvancy
    - Chemical Composition of Adjuvants
    - Mechanistic Approaches for Investigating Adjuvancy
    - Future Prospects
    Packaging of Agrochemicals
    - Selection of Packaging Types
    - Closures
    - Labelling
    - Shelf Life
    - Pack Design with Regard to Easy Rising and Disposal
    - Types of Secondary Packaging
    - United Nations Performance Tests
    - Rinsing Methods
    - Closed Transfer Systems
    - Collection of Containers after use
    - Summary of Key Design Criteria
    - Returnable Packaging Systems
    - ECPA Standard SVR Interface
    - Future Direction
    Application Techniques for Agrochemicals
    - Hydraulic Nozzles
    - Portable Sprayers
    - Tractor Sprayers
    - Aerial Application
    - ULV and CDA Ground Application
    - Fogs, Mists and Aerosols
    - Electrostatically Charged Applications
    - Chemigation
    - Granule, Dust and Seed Treatments
    - Miscellaneous
    - Standards
    Regulatory Requirements in the European Union
    - Some Basic Features of 91/414/EEC
    - Overview of Authorizations
    - Data Requirements
    - Dossier Preparation
    - Inclusion of Active Substances in Annex I of 91/414/EEC
    - Authorization of Plant Protection Products
    - Transitional Measures and the Review Programme
    - Adjuvants
    Regulatory Requirements in the USA
    - Federal Pesticide Laws
    - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs
    - Product Registration: Obtaining a License to Sell
    - Registration and Tolerance Data Requirements
    - Data Evaluation
    - Data Protection and Compensation
    - Reregistration and Product Defense
    - Product Labeling
    - State Registration Requirements
    - Conclusions
    Waste Management and Disposal of Agrochemicals
    - Site Management Responsibilities
    - Waste Minimization
    - Waste Types
    - Waste Handling
    - Documentation and Records
    - Waste Disposal
    - Treatment and Disposal of Aqueous Effluents Arising from Formulation and Packaging of Agrochemical Products



    Book Description

    Agrochemical products and adjuvants are of vital importance in agriculture, to protect food and fibre crops from weeds, insect pests and diseases, in order to feed and clothe the growing world population. In recent years there have been increasing pressures to produce agrochemical formulations which have a lower environmental impact and are safer in use. Enormous changes have taken place in the chemistry and technology of agrochemicals over the last twenty years or so and this book provides a timely review of the most important area of technology in the development of new products. This book covers issues around international product quality and safety standards and describes the current and likely future trends which will carry the industry forward into the next millennium. It brings together well known international experts with many years of practical experience from agrochemical companies, consultancies, academic institutions and regulatory bodies. Chemists and technologists involved in developing new or improved agrochemical formulations will find this book an essential reference in the course of their work. The book will also be of interest to those working in research and development departments of raw material suppliers, as a

    concise review of this important field.


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