انا مامي محتويات المحيط فهرس مقالاتي عمالة المنهاج نادي العرب الشفاء رحاب موقع مقالات أركان المعتمر لحجز فنادق مكة والمدينة

Nanotechnology Applications to Telecommunications and Networking

الموضوع في 'النانوتكنولوجي و المواد النانوية' بواسطة wks316, بتاريخ ‏يوليو 15, 2010.

  1. wks316

    wks316 Member

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    السلام عليكم
    كتاب اخر في مجال النانوتكنولوجي اضيفة لهذا المنتدى الرائع كمشاركة بسيطة لعلة يكون نافعا لمن يحتاجه
    Title of the book
    Nanotechnology Applications to Telecommunications and Networking

    0471736597.jpg


    • Author: Minoli, Daniel
    • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

    • Publication date: October 2005
    • Content language: English
    • size: 12.848 KB
    • no of pages:487
    BOOK Description
    Be a part of the nanotechnology revolution in telecommunications This book provides a unique and thought-provoking perspective on how nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize the telecommunications, computing, and networking industries. The author discusses emerging technologies as well as technologies under development that will lay the foundation for such innovations as: * Nanomaterials with novel optical, electrical, and magnetic properties * Faster and smaller non-silicon-based chipsets, memory, and processors * New-science computers based on Quantum Computing * Advanced microscopy and manufacturing systems * Faster and smaller telecom switches, including optical switches * Higher-speed transmission phenomena based on plasmonics and other quantum-level phenomena * Nanoscale MEMS: micro-electro-mechanical systems The author of this cutting-edge publication has played a role in the development of actual nanotechnology-based communication systems. In this book, he examines a broad range of the science of nanotechnology and how this field will affect every facet of the telecommunications and computing industries, in both the near and far term, including: * Basic concepts of nanotechnology and its applications * Essential physics and chemistry underlying nanotechnology science * Nanotubes, nanomaterials, and nanomaterial processing * Promising applications in nanophotonics, including nanocrystals and nanocrystal fibers * Nanoelectronics, including metal nanoclusters, semiconducting nanoclusters, nanocrystals, nanowires, and quantum dots This book is written for telecommunications professionals, researchers, and students who need to discover and exploit emerging revenue-generating opportunities to develop the next generation of nanoscale telecommunications and network systems. Non-scientists will find the treatment completely accessible. A detailed glossary clarifies unfamiliar terms and concepts. Appendices are provided for readers who want to delve further into the hard-core science, including nanoinstrumentation and quantum computing. Nanotechnology is the next industrial revolution, and the telecommunications industry will be radically transformed by it in a few years. This is the publication that readers need to understand how that transformation will happen, the science behind it, and how they can be a part of it.

    CONTENTS:

    Preface xv
    About the Author xix
    1. Nanotechnology and Its Business Applications 1
    1.1 Introduction and Scope 1
    1.1.1 Introduction to the Nanoscale 1
    1.1.2 Plethora of Potential Applications 7
    1.1.3 Challenges and Opportunities 13
    1.1.4 Technology Scope 15
    1.1.5 Commercialization Scope 18
    1.1.6 Opportunities of the Technology and the 21st Century
    Nanotechnology Research and Development Act of 2003 22
    1.2 Present Course of Investigation 23
    2. Basic Nanotechnology Science—Physics 25
    2.1 Approach and Scope 26
    2.2 Basic Science 27
    2.2.1 Atoms 27
    2.2.2 Key Subatomic Particles 28
    2.2.3 Atomic Structure 36
    2.2.4 Substances and Elements 39
    2.2.5 Nomenclature and Periodic Table 45
    2.2.6 Making Compounds 47
    2.3 Basic Properties of Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors 49
    2.4 Basic Properties of Silicon and Basics of Transistor Operation 51
    2.4.1 Transistors 51
    2.4.2 Manufacturing Approaches 53
    2.4.3 Manufacturing Limitations 55
    2.5 Conclusion 58
    viii CONTENTS
    3. Basic Nanotechnology Science—Chemistry 59
    3.1 Introduction and Background 59
    3.2 Basic Chemistry Concepts 60
    3.2.1 Physical Aspects 60
    3.2.2 Bonding 64
    3.2.3 Basic Formulation/Machinery of Chemical Reactions 73
    3.2.4 Chemistry of Carbon 74
    3.2.5 Graphical View of the Atomic Structure Of Materials 78
    3.3 Conclusion 86
    4. Nanotubes, Nanomaterials, and Nanomaterial Processing 87
    4.1 Introduction 88
    4.2 Basic Nanostructures 95
    4.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes 95
    4.2.2 Nanowires 101
    4.2.3 Nanocones 106
    4.2.4 Applications of Nanotubes, Nanowires, and Nanocones 106
    4.2.5 Quantum Dots 111
    4.2.6 Quantum Dots Nanocrystals 115
    4.2.7 Ultrananocrystalline Diamond 117
    4.2.8 Diamondoids 117
    4.2.9 Nanocomposites 117
    4.2.10 Thin-Films 120
    4.2.11 Nanofoam 122
    4.2.12 Nanoclusters 122
    4.2.13 Smart Nanostructures 122
    4.2.14 Environmental Issues for Nanomaterials 122
    4.3 Manufacturing Techniques 123
    4.3.1 General Approaches 123
    4.3.2 Self-Assembly Methods 127
    4.4 System Design 132
    4.5 Conclusion 133
    5. Nanophotonics 134
    5.1 Introduction and Background: A Plethora of Opportunities 134
    5.2 General Photonics Trends 137
    5.3 Basic Nanophotonics 147
    CONTENTS ix
    5.3.1 Photonic Crystals 150
    5.3.2 Photonic Crystal Fibers 153
    5.3.3 Photonic Crystal Lasers 154
    5.3.4 Plasmonics 155
    5.3.5 Integration 155
    5.3.6 New Technologies 156
    5.3.7 Instrumentation 157
    5.4 Photonic Crystals 157
    5.4.1 Overview 157
    5.4.2 Applicability of Technology 159
    5.4.3 Fabrication 161
    5.5 Telecom Applications of Photonic Crystals 162
    5.5.1 Quantum Cascade Lasers 162
    5.5.2 Photonic Crystal Fibers 163
    5.5.3 Superprism Effect in Photonic Crystal 164
    5.6 Plasmonics 165
    5.6.1 Study of Light at the Nanoscale 165
    5.6.2 Physics of the Near-Field 173
    5.7 Advanced Topics 177
    5.7.1 Nonlinear Optics 177
    5.7.2 Confinement and Microresonators 179
    5.7.3 Quantum Optics 183
    5.7.4 Superlenses 184
    5.8 Conclusion 184
    6. Nanoelectronics 185
    6.1 Introduction 186
    6.1.1 Recent Past 186
    6.1.2 The Present and its Challenges 189
    6.1.3 Future 193
    6.2 Overview of Basic Nanoelectronic Technologies 199
    6.2.1 Single Electron Devices 199
    6.2.2 Quantum Mechanical Tunnel Devices 202
    6.2.3 Spin Nanoelectronics (Spintronics) 204
    6.2.4 Molecular Nanoelectronics 205
    6.2.5 Fault Tolerant Designs 207
    6.2.6 Quantum Cellular Automata 208
    6.2.7 Quantum Computing 209
    x CONTENTS
    6.3 Additional Details on Nanoelectronic Systems 210
    6.3.1 Quantum Dots and Quantum Wires 211
    6.3.2 Quantum Computing 215
    6.3.3 Fabrication Methods and Techniques for
    Nanoelectronics 218
    6.3.4 Microscopy Tools for Nanoelectronics 226
    6.3.5 Microelectromechanical Systems and
    Microoptoelectromechanical Systems
    Applications 229
    6.4 Conclusion 230
    Appendix A Historical Developments Related to Atomic Theory and
    Additional Perspectives 231
    Appendix B Brief Introduction to Hilbert Spaces 237
    Appendix C Reference Information 241
    Appendix D Basic Nanotechnology Science—Quantum Physics 248
    D.1 Physics Developments Leading to a
    Quantum Model 248
    D.1.1 Experimental Highlights 249
    D.1.2 Basic Mechanisms 252
    D.2 Quantum Concepts 254
    D.2.1 Electron Density of Atoms 255
    D.2.2 Energy Levels 266
    D.2.3 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 272
    D.2.4 Motion in Two Dimensions 275
    D.2.5 Ψ—The Probability Amplitude 275
    D.2.6 The Hydrogen Atom—Developing the
    Hydrogenic Atomic Orbital Concepts 279
    D.2.7 Formal Application of Theory 288
    D.3 Other Topics 293
    D.3.1 Field Theory 293
    D.3.2 String Theory 297
    D.3.3 A Few Words About the Current Understanding
    of Physics 297
    Appendix E Mechanical Molecular Models and Quantum
    Aspects of Chemistry 299
    E.1 Mechanical Molecular Models 299
    E.2 Quantum Chemistry/Linear Combination of
    Atomic Orbitals 303
    CONTENTS xi
    E.2.1 Linear Combination of Atomic
    Orbitals Approach 304
    E.2.2 Hartree-Fock (HF) Approach 306
    E.2.3 Configuration Interaction Method 307
    E.2.4 Semiempirical Molecular Orbital Methods 307
    E.2.5 Modeling for Nanomaterials 307
    Appendix F Basic Molecular/Nanotechnology Instrumentation 308
    F.1 Overview of Generic Microscopy Tools 310
    F.1.1 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 315
    F.1.2 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) 315
    F.1.3 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass
    Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) 315
    F.1.4 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 316
    F.1.5 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy
    (FE-SEM) 316
    F.1.6 Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) 316
    F.1.7 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry
    (EDS) 316
    F.1.8 Auger Electron Spectrometry (AES) and
    Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) 317
    F.1.9 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
    and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical
    Analysis (ESCA) 317
    F.1.10 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry
    (RBS) 317
    F.1.11 Hydrogen Forward Scattering Spectrometry
    (HFS) 317
    F.1.12 Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) 318
    F.1.13 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning
    Tunneling Microscopy (STM), and Magnetic
    Force Microscopy (MFM) 318
    F.1.14 Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence
    (TXRF) 318
    F.1.15 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry
    (FTIR) 318
    F.1.16 μ-Raman Spectroscopy 319
    F.1.17 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
    (GC/MS) 319
    F.1.18 Enhanced Sensitivity for Quantitation with
    Tandem Mass Spectrometry 321
    F.1.19 X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) 322
    xii CONTENTS
    F.1.20 Focused Ion Beam (FIB) 322
    F.1.21 Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy
    (NSOM) and Near-Field Optical
    Spectroscopy (NFOS) 323
    F.2 Details on Some Key Systems 324
    F.2.1 Contact Mode AFM 324
    F.2.2 Magnetic AC Mode (MAC Mode) 325
    F.2.3 Acoustic AC Mode (AAC Mode) 325
    F.2.4 Current-Sensing AFM 327
    F.2.5 Force Modulation AFM 328
    F.2.6 Phase Imaging 329
    F.2.7 Pulsed Force Mode (PFM) 330
    F.2.8 Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) 331
    F.2.9 Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) 332
    F.2.10 Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) 333
    F.2.11 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) 334
    Appendix G Quantum Computing 336
    G.1 Introduction 336
    G.2 Fundamental Theoretical Challenges 337
    G.2.1 Quantum Algorithms 338
    G.2.2 Quantum Complexity Theory 338
    G.2.3 Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing 338
    G.2.4 Simulation of Quantum Systems 339
    G.3 Quantum Computation Historical Review 339
    G.3.1 A Short Summary of Significant
    Breakthroughs in Quantum Information
    Theory 339
    G.3.2 Current Developments and Directions 343
    G.4 Quantum Information Theory 348
    G.4.1 Capacities 349
    G.4.2 Entanglement and Correlations 352
    G.4.3 Cryptographic Primitives 355
    G.5 Quantum Computer Architectures 359
    G.5.1 Initial Conceptual Development 361
    G.5.2 Testing the Components 361
    G.5.3 Assembling the Components into
    a Working Device 361
    G.5.4 Scaling up the Architecture 362
    G.5.5 “Type-II” Quantum Computing 363
    G.6 Decoherence Roadblocks for Quantum
    Information Processing 363
    G.6.1 Theoretical Terminology 363
    G.6.2 Studies of Decoherence and Ways to
    Overcome It 364
    G.6.3 Physical Sources of Decoherence 366
    G.6.4 Decoherence Analyses 368
    Glossary 371
    References 439
    Index 479

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