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كيمياء فيزيائية Titanate and Titania Nanotubes: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

الموضوع في 'قسم الكيمياء' بواسطة chemistry, بتاريخ ‏يناير 6, 2010.

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    chemistry مستشار كلية العلوم النهرالخالد إداري

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    Titanate and Titania Nanotubes: Synthesis, Properties and Applications
    (RSC Nanoscience and Nanotechnology)
    By
    Dmitry V. Bavykin, Frank C. Walsh
    [​IMG]
    Publisher

    Royal Society of Chemistry
    Number Of Pages: 154
    Publication Date: 2010-01

    ISBN-10 / ASIN: 1847559107
    ISBN-13 / EAN: 9781847559104

    BooK Description
    This exciting new book is a unique compilation of data from a wide range of chemical and spectroscopic instrumentation and the integration of nanostructure characterization drawn from physical, chemical, electrochemical, spectroscopic and electron microscopic measurements. It fills a gap in the current nanomaterials literature by documenting the latest research from scientific journals and patent literature to provide a concise yet balanced and integrated treatment of an interesting topic: titanium oxide nanostructures within the emerging fashionable area of nanomaterials.
    Of particular interest are the following key chapters:
    •Modification and Coating Techniques - provides a unique summary and discussion of available techniques to coat surfaces with nanostructured materials;

    •Chemical Properties - relates structure to surface chemistry and hence applications;
    •Structural and Physical Properties - reviews the relationship between nanostructure and physical properties providing a basis for the rationalization of applications.
    Contents
    About the Authors xiii
    Acknowledgements xv
    Abbreviations xvii
    List of Symbols xix
    Chapter 1 Introduction and Scope 1
    1.1 The History of Nanomaterials 1
    1.1.1 The Importance of TiO2 and Titanate
    Nanomaterials 2
    1.2 Classification of the Structure of Nanomaterials 6
    1.3 Synthesis of Important Elongated Nanomaterials 8
    1.3.1 Metal Oxide Nanotubes 8
    1.3.2 Metal Chalcogenide Nanotubes 12
    1.3.3 Mixed Oxides, Silicates and Other Compounds
    as Nanotubes 14
    1.4 Techniques and Instruments Used to Study
    Nanomaterials 16
    References 17
    Chapter 2 Synthesis Techniques and the Mechanism of Growth 20
    2.1 Template Methods 20
    2.2 Alkaline Hydrothermal Synthesis of Elongated
    Titanates 25
    2.2.1 Alkaline Hydrothermal Synthesis of Titanate
    Nanotubes and Nanofibres 25
    2.2.2 Mechanism of Nanostructure Growth 27
    2.2.3 Methods to Control the Morphology of
    Nanostructures 35
    2.3 Electrochemical (Anodic) Oxidation 37
    2.3.1 Principles and Examples 37
    2.3.2 Mechanism of Nanotube Growth 40
    2.3.3 Methods to Control the Morphology of
    Nanotubes 42
    Conclusions 45
    Referencess 45
    Chapter 3 Structural and Physical Properties of Elongated TiO2 and Titanate Nanostructures 50
    3.1 Crystallography 50
    3.1.1 Crystallography of Titanate Nanotubes 50
    3.1.2 Crystallography of Titanate Nanofibres,
    Nanorods and Nanosheets 56
    3.1.3 Crystallography of Anodized and
    Template-Assisted TiO2 56
    3.1.4 Conclusions 57
    3.2 Adsorption, Surface Area and Porosity 58
    3.2.1 Surface Area of Nanotubes 58
    3.2.2 Pore Volume of Nanotubes 61
    3.2.3 Effect of Ionic Charge on Adsorption from
    Aqueous Solutions 64
    3.3 Electronic Structure of Titanate Nanotubes 66
    3.3.1 Spectroscopy of Titanate Nanotubes: UV/VIS,
    Pl, ESR, XPS, NMR, Raman and FTIR 69
    3.3.2 Electrical, Proton and Thermal Conductivities
    of Titanate Nanotubes 77
    3.4 Physical Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays 79
    References 81
    Chapter 4 Chemical Properties, Transformation and Functionalization of Elongated Titanium Oxide Nanostructures 85
    4.1 Thermodynamic Equilibrium between the Nanotube and its Environment 85
    4.2 Ion-Exchange Properties of Nanostructured Titanates 89
    4.2.1 Kinetic Characteristics of Ion-Exchange 89
    4.2.2 Decoration of Nanotubes using the
    Ion-Exchange Method 94
    4.2.3 Decoration of Substrates with Nanotubes 97
    4.3 Surface Chemistry and Functionalization of
    Nanostructured Titanates 100
    4.4 Stability of Nanotubes and Phase Transformations 102
    4.4.1 Thermal Stability 102
    4.4.2 Acidic Environments 105
    4.4.3 Mechanical Treatment 105
    References 106
    Chapter 5 Potential Applications 109
    5.1 Energy Conversion and Storage 109
    5.1.1 Solar Cells 109
    5.1.2 Lithium Batteries 114
    5.1.3 Fuel Cells and Batteries 117
    5.1.4 Hydrogen Storage and Sensing 119
    5.2 Catalysis, Electrocatalysis and Photocatalysis 121
    5.2.1 Reaction Catalysis 121
    5.2.2 Supercapacitors and General Electrochemistry 127
    5.2.3 Photocatalysis in Elongated Titanates and
    TiO2 128
    5.3 Magnetic Materials 137
    5.4 Drug Delivery and Bio-Applications 138
    5.5 Composites, Surface Finishing and Tribological
    Coatings 140
    5.6 Other Applications 141
    References 142
    Subject Index 150​
     
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